Which Biblical peoples can still be identified?

In general, the African peoples (non-Arabic) are identified as descendants of Ham, and East Asians are identified as descendants of Yafes [Japheth]. Ham and Yafes were the progenitors of other ancient peoples as well.

It is important to note that the ruthless king of the Babylonian empire, Nebuchadnezzar, forcibly mixed the original nations which he conquered so they would lose their independent national identities. For example, the Talmud (Sanhedrin 59b) states that the original Ishmaelites became intermingled with the other nations that were descended from Abraham and Keturah. Likewise, the original Egyptians, Moabites and Ammonites can no longer be identified. The only peoples which Nebuchadnezzer did not intermingle were the exiles of Judea, and of course his own Babylonian people. The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, pointed out that within the modern country of Iraq there are still a significant number of these ethnic Babylonians.